Federal Party Survey on Environmental Platforms
2019 Canadian Federal Election
In anticipation of the need to bring forth important issues facing Canadians today – environmental protection, economic justice and human rights – a questionnaire representing the collective priorities of the organizations listed below was sent to Canada’s six main political parties in July 2019. The following are the official responses from the political parties surveyed.
This website is for informational purposes only. It is not intended to support or oppose, to promote or show disapproval of a platform, or to endorse or reject a party or any measures recommended by it.
  1. Will you immediately legislate a climate plan that will reduce Canada’s emissions in line with keeping warming below 1.5°C?
    Click on the party logos to see each of their responses.

    BLOC QUÉBÉCOIS RESPONSE

    Yes. Parliament should adopt a law to set GFHG reduction targets that comply with the Paris objectives, force the government to take the measures required to achieve them and include an accountability mechanism and a clause requiring the government to take into account the climate change impact of all its actions, including subsidies and contributions.

    The law should include a clause demanding a mandatory four-year review, so reduction targets can be increased to move toward the more ambitious objective of 1.5 degrees stated in the Paris Agreement.

    That said, setting a reduction target is pointless in itself. Canada set a target under the Kyoto Protocol but did nothing to achieve it. The same thing is happening now with the Paris Agreement, with Canada moving ever further from its target. This is why, in addition to setting more ambitious targets, we will propose a series of immediate, vigorous actions to achieve them.

    In particular, we will propose a complete reform of the carbon tax:

    First, we will propose to gradually increase it to the point at which it can actually achieve the Paris objectives. The Parliamentary Budget Officer estimated that point to be $106 per tonne.

    Second, we will propose a change in its application parameters. In its current form, the federal tax applies in provinces that the federal government has chosen arbitrarily, after assessing the measures the province is taking to combat climate change. This would allow the federal government to make Québec’s climate change plan inoperative with a simple pen stroke, which we cannot accept, not to mention the fact that it is currently the subject of a legal dispute, causing legal uncertainty that reduces its effectiveness. Instead, we will propose an objective criterion, under which the tax will apply where emissions per inhabitant are higher than the Canadian average, which seems to us to be both more effective and respectful and less uncertain constitutionally.

    Third, basically, the revenue from the tax is given back to the people who pay it, which considerably reduces its effect on the environment. In terms of taxation, the principle of the polluter-payer requires the polluter to pay and the non-polluter to receive. To apply this principle, we will propose that the tax collected in the polluting provinces be given to the non-polluters, based on their level of emissions per inhabitant (in partial replacement of equalization payments).

    The outcome will be a major tax reform that will revamp the carbon tax, shift part of income tax to green taxation and overhaul the equalization formula to include incentives to fight climate change more actively. By taxing the polluters to reward non-polluters in a kind of tax trade market, we hope to create an extremely powerful incentive for energy transition and green innovation.

    CONSERVATIVE PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    No.
    Please see Conservative Party of Canada response at the end for more details.

    GREEN PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes. Greens are committed to legislating a comprehensive climate plan that meets the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)’s recommended targets for keeping warming below 1.5°C, immediately. Our emissions reduction target is 60% below 2005 levels by 2030 and carbon neutral by 2050. Canada is already so far behind that there is no time to lose. We must utilize all the tools in the federal tool kit.

    LIBERAL PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes.

    Our government helped to spur global ambition and strengthen resolve by pushing for the 1.5°C objective into the Paris Agreement in 2015, which has guided our climate policy ever since. The 1.5°C limit matters for Canada, which is warming at twice the global average – and at three times the global average in the north. The 1.5°C limit is even more essential for poorer countries, which often lack adequate resources to adapt to climate change. That’s why Canada has committed over $2.6 billion to support climate action in developing countries, which is double what the previous government committed.

    Under the previous government, Canadians heard a lot about climate targets but saw virtually no action to meet them. We took the opposite approach, getting straight to work on actions to cut pollution. We negotiated Canada’s first-ever national climate plan, and we’ve been working every day since to implement it.

    In the past four years, that approach has delivered the biggest projected cut to Canada’s emissions ever. That’s a big step, but it’s just a first step. We know there’s much more to do. The Paris Agreement requires us to increase our ambition over time, and that’s exactly what we’ll do – through legislation, regulations, smart policies, and international commitment and leadership.

    That’s why a re-elected Liberal government would adopt a net-zero GHG target for Canada for 2050. We would immediately appoint an expert advisory panel to recommend pathways to reach the 2050 target, and we would develop a plan to achieve it drawing on their recommendations, as well as on consultations with Canadians in all sectors and regions of the country. This will build off of the Generation Energy Report, which is a roadmap for Canada’s Clean energy transition over the next 25 years. We have also committed to put our net-zero 2050 target into law, and to legislate a series of five-year carbon budgets starting in 2025 to attain the 2050 target. The carbon budget trajectory will draw on the recommendations of the expert panel and consultations with Canadians.

    And to help us get there, a re-elected Liberal government will build on Canada’s climate plan by introducing a series of new measures to further cut pollution, notably by strengthening existing rules to cut emissions from Canada’s biggest polluters, including oil and gas. We will ensure Canada leads and succeeds in zero-emissions clean tech by cutting corporate taxes in half for businesses developing or manufacturing zero emissions technologies.

    We will cut energy waste and energy bills by:

    • Providing free energy audits to homeowners and landowners, and up to $40,000 in interest-free loans for green renovations;
    • Providing a Net Zero Homes Grant of up to $5,000 to Canadians purchasing newly built energy efficient homes;
    • Retrofitting 1.5 million homes to support Canadians in making their homes more energy efficient, and better protecting them from climate-related risks;
    • Investing $100 million in skills training, to ensure there are enough qualified workers to keep up with energy audits, retrofits, and net-zero home construction;
    • Making Energy Star certification mandatory for all new home appliances starting in 2022;
    • Moving forward with a competition to create four $100-million long-term funds to help attract capital that can be used for deep retrofits of large buildings, such as office towers.

     

    We will make clean, affordable power available in every Canadian community by:

    • Moving forward with new clean electricity generation and transmission systems;
    • Creating a new $5-billion Clean Power Fund that will support electrification projects and the transition of northern, remote, and Indigenous communities off reliance on diesel-fueled power and onto clean, renewable, reliable industry;

     

    We will also continue to make it easier and more affordable for people to use zero-emissions vehicles by:

    • Installing up to 5,000 charging stations along the Trans Canada Highway, and in other major road networks to cover Canada’s urban, rural, and Northern areas, as well as in apartments and condominiums. This will complete the work we started in our first mandate and enable Canadians to travel coast to coast electrically;
    • Expanding our $5,000 electric vehicle incentive to cover used zero-emissions vehicles;
    • Requiring that new federal investments in public transit are used to support zero-emission buses and rail systems starting in 2023;
    • Creating a new fund to help school boards and municipalities purchase 5,000 zero-emissions school and transit buses over the next five years;
    • And exploring measures to support the conversion of business fleets, such as those used by taxi and courier companies, and industrial vehicles, like mining trucks.

     

    Nature is a critical ally in the fight against climate change. That is why we will also set new, ambitious targets in protecting more of Canada’s lands and oceans. By 2025, we will protect 25% of our lands and 25% of our oceans. And by 2030, we will protect 30% of our lands, and 30% of our oceans. In that same vein, we will also move forward with an ambitious plan to plant two billion trees over 10 years, which will cut 30 Mt of emissions in it of itself.

    We know there is more to do, and we will continue to look for opportunities to do more with Canadians. During our last mandate, we also provided $20 million over four years for an independent expert institute on climate change, which will inform future governments about best practices in emission reductions to achieve Canada’s target. The newly created Canadian Centre for Energy Information will provide publicly available modelling, forecasting and foresighting of energy data aligned to the Paris Agreement.

    NEW DEMOCRATIC PARTY RESPONSE

    Yes. For too long, Liberal and Conservative governments have set emissions reduction targets and then ignored them. Canadians are now facing a climate crisis that requires immediate and serious action – and a government that delivers on climate commitments. A New Democrat government will immediately declare a climate emergency and put into law the requirement for the government to establish a plan to meet ambitious, science-based greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets that will help stabilize the global temperature rise to 1.5 degrees Celsius. Our plan will use the powers of the federal government to ensure that the provinces set and meet interim emissions reduction targets in the lead up to 2030 and 2050. New Democrats will revise Canada’s 2030 target to make emissions reductions in line with what the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change says is necessary to prevent catastrophic climate impacts. We will also establish an independent Climate Accountability Office to do regular audits of progress towards our climate goals, with a budget to share information about the importance of climate action with Canadians. New Democrats have always been leaders in the fight for strong, legislated action to reduce emissions and confront the climate crisis. In 2006, Jack Layton spearheaded the first Climate Change Accountability Act. NDP governments across the country have also led the way in securing environmental rights, holding big polluters accountable, reducing carbon pollution, making life more affordable, and ensuring that workers aren’t left behind in a changing economy.

    PEOPLE'S PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    No Response

  2. Will your climate plan clearly and precisely describe programs to reduce emissions from transportation, buildings and the oil and gas sector?
    Click on the party logos to see each of their responses.

    BLOC QUÉBÉCOIS RESPONSE

    Transportation: Yes. We want to make federal support for electric and rechargeable vehicles permanent, and improve it for people who are not high earners and those who will send a polluting vehicle to the scrap yard. We also want to add a component for commercial and institutional fleets, and we want to force the government to systematically choose low- or zero-emission vehicles when it replaces its fleet.

    In terms of standards, the approach that seems most appropriate to us is to get in line with California, the North American leader. This kind of harmonization seems most likely to ensure better availability of vehicles at reasonable prices. In the face of Ottawa’s delays and excuses, we feel that Québec has all the powers it needs to take action independently, if necessary, as California did despite the laxity of the Trump administration in the United States.

    Buildings: Yes. For residential buildings, we want to draw inspiration from the defunct Eco Energy plan, abolished by the Stephen Harper Conservatives and never reinstated by Justin Trudeau’s Liberals.

    We also want to add a component for commercial or agricultural buildings in the form of tax support to cover both eco-energy renovations and the transformation of heating systems.

    Oil and gas sector: Yes. We are in favour, in principle, of a moratorium on gas and oil exploration and operations in the Gulf. However, a unilateral action from Ottawa risks provoking a constitutional tug of war that will be counterproductive in all regards, including for the protection of the jewel of the St. Lawrence. This moratorium should be the subject of an agreement between the federal government and the provinces concerned.

    But it is the oil sands that are primarily responsible for the increase in GHGs. Under Justin Trudeau’s leadership, their production increased by an incredible 25%. This kind of unbridled increase is completely irresponsible.

    The federal government does not have the power to limit bitumen extraction, but it does authorize the infrastructure that transports it out of the province. We will come forward with a bill to prevent Ottawa from authorizing projects that do not respect provincial laws and municipal bylaws related to the environment and land use. By clearly subjecting interprovincial pipelines to provincial laws, the bill will give British Columbia the power to say no to Transmountain and Québec the power to say no to Energy East. Asserting Québec’s powers and protecting the environment are two objectives that go hand in hand.

    And then there is Keystone XL, another pipeline that will send emissions from Albertan bitumen soaring. Right now, the project has received all the required regulatory authorizations in Canada. Furthermore, NAFTA contains a provision that prevents Ottawa from limiting oil exports to the United States, which significantly reduces the federal government’s capacity to intervene. But that NAFTA provision does not appear in the new free trade agreement with the United States and Mexico. If the new agreement is passed in its current form, Ottawa will have the power to limit the volume of oil exported to the United States. This is an avenue that should be evaluated if the USMCA comes into effect.

    The uncontrolled expansion of oil sands operations must stop.

    CONSERVATIVE PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    No.
    Please see Conservative Party of Canada response at the end for more details.

    GREEN PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes. Greens are committed to a comprehensive suite of programs for reducing emissions across all sectors, but with a focus on those that emit the most. This will include programs to electrify our transportation, maximize the efficiency of our built infrastructure and rapidly transition away from fossil fuels to renewables.

    LIBERAL PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes.
     
    Our climate plan already does this today, and we will continue to adopt ambitious and effective policies and to be transparent about how we’re reducing emissions.
     
    Our national climate plan contains over 50 measures to cut pollution from all sectors of Canada’s economy, as well as policies to adapt to the impacts of climate change, support clean growth and create jobs.
     
    For example, in the transportation sector, we:
     
    • Made it easier and more affordable for people and businesses to use zero-emission vehicles;
    • Committed to implementing a Clean Fuel Standard, which requires the fuels Canadians use to get cleaner each year, reducing emissions in 2030 as much as taking 7 million cars off the road;
    • Requiring GHG emission reductions from light and heavy duty vehicles, and working with California to maintain an ambitious approach to those regulations.
     
    For buildings, we supported energy efficiency and the strengthening of building codes, including the development of a net-zero ready building code. Budget 2019 invested over $1 billion in municipal energy efficiency initiatives, including support for property-assessed clean energy programs where applicable.
     
    And in oil and gas, we brought in some of the strongest federal methane regulations in the world which will cut these emissions by almost half. We also brought forward better rules for major projects, and we ensured it was no longer free to pollute across Canada – which supports cleaner choices in all sectors.
     
    A re-elected Liberal government will build on this foundation.
     
    We will ensure Canada leads and succeeds in zero-emissions clean tech by cutting corporate taxes in half for businesses developing clean technologies or manufacturing products that have zero emissions.
     
    Eligible sectors could include:
     
    • Manufacturing related to renewable energy (e.g. wind, solar, geothermal systems, biomass, marine, hydrogen fuel cells)
    • Production of renewable fuels (biofuels, hydrogen, biogas, fuels from carbon capture and use technologies)
    • Zero emission vehicles
    • Carbon sequestration and removal technology
    • Batteries for use in zero emission vehicles and grid storage
    • Electric vehicle charging systems.
    • We will also strengthen existing rules to cut emissions from Canada’s biggest polluters, including oil and gas.
     
    We will also continue to make it easier and more affordable for people to use zero-emissions vehicles by:
     
    Moving forward in partnership with industry and communities to install up to 5,000 charging stations along the Trans Canada Highway and other major road networks, and in Canada’s urban and rural areas. Northern communities, and apartments and condominiums will be included too;
    • We will also expand our $5,000 electric vehicle incentive to Canadians purchasing used zero-emissions vehicles;
    • We will require new federal investments in public transit are used to support zero-emission buses and rail systems starting in 2023, and we will work with municipalities to address any exceptional circumstances;
    • We will create a new fund to help school boards and municipalities purchase 5,000 zero-emissions school and transit buses over the next five years;
    • And we will explore measures to support the conversion of business fleets, such as those used by taxi and courier companies, and industrial vehicles, like mining trucks.
     
    Our government is a strong supporter of transparency about emission reductions and pathways. We were one of the first governments in the world to complete a long-term low-carbon development strategy (https://unfccc.int/files/focus/long-term_strategies/application/pdf/canadas_mid-century_long-term_strategy.pdf) under the Paris Agreement.
    We assess our emissions performance, and the impact of our climate plan, in detailed technical and policy reports each year. Canadians can see the plan, those reports, and details about the policies online.

    NEW DEMOCRATIC PARTY RESPONSE

    Yes. New Democrats are committed to taking strong action to reduce emissions across all sectors, ensuring that Canada meets science-based emissions reductions targets that prevent dangerous climate change. In contrast to the Liberals, who have chosen to use $4.5 billion of public money to purchase the Kinder-Morgan bitumen pipeline that will increase Canada’s emissions, New Democrats are committed to ending fossil fuel subsidies and investing in programs to reduce emissions. In the energy sector, we will set a target to power Canada with net carbon-free electricity by 2030, and move to 100% non-emitting electricity by 2050, spurring this shift with investments from a new Canadian Climate Bank. We’ll work with the provinces and territories to make Canada an innovation leader on methane reduction in such areas as real-time monitoring and leakage detection, ensuring that provincial methane regulations are genuinely equivalent with the federal regulations, and increasing the ambition of those targets in the 2025-30 period. New Democrats will also work with industry and labour to develop a Low Carbon Industrial Strategy to support Canada’s industries through the low carbon transformation in a way that grows our economy so it works better for working families, protects jobs in all parts of the country, and creates opportunity for Indigenous communities. In the transportation sector, New Democrats will expand public transit options with a focus on scaling up low carbon transit projects like zero-emissions buses and electric trains. Working with municipalities, we will provide low-cost financing to local governments in support of the electrification of transit and other municipal fleets by 2030. Our vision includes Canadian auto manufacturers producing more ZEVs in Canada, safeguarding good jobs and strengthening our auto sector. To make it easier for families to afford a ZEV right away, a New Democrat government will provide a $5,000 federal purchase incentive, with an additional break waiving the federal sales tax for working families on ZEV purchases. Over the next few years these incentives will grow in value to $15,000 and be targeted to made-in-Canada vehicles. In order to track our progress, we’ll implement a pan-Canadian ZEV target of 100% of new automotive sales by 2040. We will also make commercial fleets and truck freight transportation cleaner, through the development of new technology and by expanding the use of zero-emissions trucks, made in Canada wherever possible. When it comes to buildings, making bold investments in energy efficiency pays off not just in terms of reducing waste: it also means savings on energy bills every month for Canadian families and businesses. And it creates a steady stream of good jobs in our local communities from coast to coast to coast. That’s why a key component of our plan is to require large-scale building retrofits across all sectors to reduce energy demand, create jobs, and save people money. A New Democrat government would begin by working in partnership with the provinces and territories to fund energy efficient retrofits on social housing units and government buildings, expanding outwards from there. We’ll improve the National Building Code to ensure that by 2030 every new building built in Canada is net-zero energy ready. Energy efficiency and sustainable building practices will be at the core of our national housing strategy, leveraging the power of federal investments to create good jobs all across the country delivering the affordable housing Canadians need. We will set a target of retrofitting all housing stock in Canada by 2050, with half of these retrofits completed by 2030. Homeowners would be able to access low-interest loans repayable through energy savings to cover upgrades like insulation, windows, heat pumps, and other renewable technologies. Provinces, municipalities and local governments will be able to access low-cost financing for energy efficient retrofits in public buildings such as libraries, schools, and community centres. Our plan would also provide specialized supports for low-income Canadians, and Indigenous remote communities to ensure that everyone can benefit from healthy, more energy-efficient homes and buildings.

    PEOPLE'S PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    No Response

  3. Will you ensure that workers and their families thrive during the transition to a low-carbon economy, by extending the Task Force on Just Transition to include all fossil fuel industries?
    Click on the party logos to see each of their responses.

    BLOC QUÉBÉCOIS RESPONSE

    With regard to income support, workers in the petroleum regions already enjoy a preferential regime under which their employment insurance benefits can last up to two years.

    We also want to set up an income support program for older workers facing mass layoffs. A program like this once existed (Program for Older Worker Adjustment or POWA). It was jointly financed by Ottawa and the provinces and allowed those workers, who were difficult to retrain due to their age, to count on bridging income until they reached retirement age.

    With regard to workforce training, we are asking for the federal-provincial agreements to be concluded very quickly and for them to respect the provinces’ autonomy in terms of education and training. With agreements that uphold the provinces’ control, Alberta could target workers if it wants to, while Québec could target its leading industries. Ottawa has no legitimacy or expertise to impose standards in this area.

    We should also note that energy transition will be easier for workers in the old economy to manage if we encourage the development of green industries. For example, in intelligent transport, although Montréal’s metro cars were built in La Pocatière and Toronto’s were built in Sudbury, the other provinces have no Canadian content requirements in their public transit investments.

    And then there is the field of second-generation biofuels, ethanol or gas from waste recovery, which could become more significant with enough government support, in part by redirecting the support it offers for fossil fuels.

    CONSERVATIVE PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    No.
    Please see Conservative Party of Canada response at the end for more details.

    GREEN PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes. In order to meet Canada’s climate commitments, it is clear that a much broader and deeper transition away from fossil fuels is required than a simple transition away from coal-fired electricity generation. Greens, through our Mission: Possible climate action plan, are committed to a Just Transition - putting in place the training programs and supports required to ensure that Canadian workers and their families from across the fossil fuel industries are able to thrive during the transition to a low carbon economy.

    LIBERAL PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes. We will do this through a Just Transition Act.
     
    Just Transition is an essential part of our climate plan, and we will build on the task force’s excellent work in the years ahead.
     
    Our government is committed to phasing out traditional coal by 2030--32 years earlier than the Harper Conservatives would have done--which is the right choice for our health and the environment. But we can’t leave workers and communities behind in the process. It’s not the right thing to do, and it undermines lasting environmental progress. The Just Transition Task Force heard from coal workers and communities across Canada to arrive at their recommendations, and we’ve already started responding to their advice:
     
    • In Budget 2018, we invested $35 million in transition centres to help coal workers find new opportunities and support skills development;
    • In Budget 2019, we allocated $150 million to support new infrastructure development in coal communities. That budget also named a lead minister for just transition who is tasked with continuing to advance the task force’s recommendations.
     
    Supporting a just transition for coal workers, in response to our government’s phase out of coal, is a crucial first step. In the process, we’re learning important lessons and adopting approaches that can apply to other workers as we make a transition to clean growth.
     
    We are committed to continuing that work and to always putting people at the centre of our fight against climate change.
     
    A re-elected Liberal government would introduce a Just Transition Act to provide affected workers and communities access training, support and new opportunities to adapt and succeed to the transition to a clean economy.

    NEW DEMOCRATIC PARTY RESPONSE

    Yes. New Democrats believe that any climate change plan that leaves Canadian workers or regions behind is no plan at all. There are real solutions that invest in good jobs in all communities and rebuild local economies with meaningful, family-sustaining work in every part of the country, all while helping to make the changes we need to succeed in a low carbon future. An important part of our plan will include making sure that physical, digital and social infrastructure investments contribute to emissions reductions and benefit all regions and communities, especially those already experiencing the impacts of climate change, with the good, family-sustaining jobs they bring. We estimate that our plan will create at least 300,000 good jobs across the country in the next four years. A New Democrat government will work together with labour, employers, and the provinces and territories to find solutions for workers and communities in all impacted sectors, based on the recommendations of the Task Force on Just Transition for Canadian Coal Power Workers and Communities. New Democrats will put in place dedicated employment support combining access to expanded EI benefits, re-training and job placement services, paired with significant investments to create quality local jobs and support thriving communities. We will also vigorously defend pensions, so that workers can always count on the retirement security that they’ve earned, and make sure that workers who are close to the end of their careers have a bridge to a dignified retirement. Training for the future of work is also core to our approach, including expanded access to income supports, training and re-training for the new job market. New Democrats will set a national standard to ensure that Canadian employers continue to invest in training and employee development, and we’ll work with the provinces to focus on training for sectors with the strongest job growth, in order to ensure that everyone has access to the skills and knowledge that will be in demand in a low-carbon future. New Democrats will also create a framework for enshrining Community Benefits Agreements in federally funded infrastructure projects, to make sure that public money is put to its best possible use creating local economic opportunities and building support from local communities for climate goals. This will go hand in hand with improving apprenticeship rates for skilled trades and putting supports in place so that women, racialized Canadians, Indigenous peoples, and other under-represented groups can more easily choose careers in the trades.

    PEOPLE'S PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    No Response

  4. Will you ensure that fossil fuel projects will not be approved unless they are consistent with limiting emissions in Canada to keep warming below the 1.5°C threshold?
    Click on the party logos to see each of their responses.

    BLOC QUÉBÉCOIS RESPONSE

    As we said before, we are in favour of a law that sets GHG reduction targets that comply with the Paris objectives and that forces the government to evaluate the impact of all its decisions on the basis of those targets, which have become legally binding.

    CONSERVATIVE PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    No.
    Please see Conservative Party of Canada response at the end for more details.

    GREEN PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes. Greens are committed to ensuring the emissions impacts of fossil fuel projects are properly assessed and operate within the strict limits required to meet our targets. Given that currently approved projects already put us well beyond the emissions targets agreed to under the Paris Agreement, no new fossil fuel projects will be approved.

    LIBERAL PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Our government’s Impact Assessment Act creates better rules for considering major new projects in Canada, and that includes their climate change impacts. Guided by that Act, our government will ensure that fighting climate change is a central part of the discussion when cabinet or ministers consider project proposals.
     
    Specifically, the Impact Assessment Act requires decision-makers to consider the extent to which a project hinders, or contributes to, Canada’s ability to meet its environmental obligations and its commitments in respect of climate change.
     
    The Act requires project proponents to provide detailed information about the emissions implications of proposed projects, which will be complemented by analysis of that information by the Impact Assessment Agency or lifecycle regulators. Decision-makers will be provided with analysis of project’s GHG emissions in the context of Canada’s emissions targets and forecasts, such as Canada’s 2030 emissions targets and Canada’s Mid-Century Long-Term Low-Greenhouse Gas Development Strategy.
     
    In addition, as we move forward with developing net-zero legislation, we will carefully consider how we ensure that we are growing our economy today in a manner that is consistent with achieving a net-zero future. Further, by legislating net-zero and five-year milestones, we will provide important transparency for businesses so that they can plan long-life assets to be consistent with national climate goals and our international climate action commitments.

    NEW DEMOCRATIC PARTY RESPONSE

    Yes. New Democrats believe in giving Canadians a stronger voice in energy decisions that impact their communities. We will ensure that proposed projects align with our emissions reduction targets, respect Indigenous rights and create good jobs here in Canada. We will overhaul the process for reviewing major projects to ensure adequate time for public consultation, and provide core funding to support Indigenous communities participating in these processes.

    PEOPLE'S PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    No Response

  5. Will you champion a connected and representative protected areas network of at least 30 per cent of land, freshwater and oceans by 2030?
    Click on the party logos to see each of their responses.

    BLOC QUÉBÉCOIS RESPONSE

    Provincial territory belongs constitutionally to the provinces, and Indigenous nations need control over the management of their territories, so we feel that unilateral action from Ottawa is inappropriate because it would not respect the Quebec nation or Indigenous nations.

    CONSERVATIVE PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    No.
    Please see Conservative Party of Canada response at the end for more details.

    GREEN PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes. Greens are committed to protecting a minimum of 30% of freshwaters, oceans, and land by 2030.

    LIBERAL PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes.
     
    Over the last four years, our government took serious action to protect Canada’s nature and wildlife that depends on it. We made the largest investment in nature conservation in Canadian history, we conserved land areas equal to about 3.5 times the size of Nova Scotia, we exceeded our 2020 target by boosting the amount of protected coastal and ocean areas from 1 per cent to 14 per cent, we expanded Rouge National Urban Park - North America’s largest urban park, and we worked in partnership with Inuit to protect the Arctic’s last year-round sea ice, as well as sensitive areas in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and glass sponge reefs off the coast of British Columbia. We have also secured an agreement with the City of Montreal to create a large urban park that will increase the amount of green space and help to reduce flooding.
     
    A re-elected Liberal government will conserve and protect 25% of Canada’s land and 25% of Canada’s oceans by 2025, working towards 30% of each by 2030. We will ground these efforts in science, Indigenous knowledge, and local perspectives. We will also advocate for countries around the world to set a 30% conservation goal as well.

    NEW DEMOCRATIC PARTY RESPONSE

    Yes. Conservation is a vital way to protect ecosystems and preserve biodiversity. New Democrats are committed to protecting at least 30% of our land, freshwater, and oceans by 2030 and to backing those protections with the funding and enforcement in order to achieve this goal. We’ll also work with other levels of government to develop a system of urban national parks – to advance our conservation goals while connecting more Canadians to our natural heritage. And we will work with the provinces to develop a national approach to tree-planting, using responsible reforestation to help lower our carbon footprint. Recognizing that protecting our oceans is an important part of fighting climate change, a New Democrat government will work to reduce emissions from shipping and fishing, prevent ocean acidification, and reverse the loss of coastal blue carbon ecosystems, such as salt marshes. We’ll also protect ocean biodiversity by expanding well-enforced marine protected areas. Canada’s freshwater resources are critical for the health and well-being of our ecosystems, our communities and our local economies. A New Democrat government will implement a national freshwater strategy and work with the provinces and territories to protect our waterways, including the Saint Lawrence, under international agreements. We will also reverse the harmful changes brought in by the Conservatives and fully restore navigable waters protections for all of Canada’s lakes and rivers, and invest in research to support freshwater protections.

    PEOPLE'S PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    No Response

  6. Will you ensure Canada’s federally protected lands, freshwater and oceans are managed to the highest international standards for ecological integrity?
    Click on the party logos to see each of their responses.

    BLOC QUÉBÉCOIS RESPONSE

    Yes.

    CONSERVATIVE PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    No.
    Please see Conservative Party of Canada response at the end for more details.

    GREEN PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes. Greens are committed to ensuring that the International Union for Conservation of Nature rules are applied to protected areas, that the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act and Navigable Waters Protection Act are properly restored, and that the federal agencies responsible for managing Canada’s protected lands, freshwater and oceans have the funding they need.

    LIBERAL PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes. Throughout this mandate, we’ve made ecological integrity a top priority on federally protected lands, and that’s exactly what we would continue to do if we form government again after this election.
     
    For example:
     
    In April 2019 our government adopted a new approach to marine conservation, including protection standards to better conserve sensitive and important parts of our oceans. Canada’s Marine Protected Areas will now function similar to our national parks, providing a high level of environmental protection by including new standards that prohibit industrial activities like oil and gas activities, mining, dumping and bottom trawling.
     
    Our government is committed to ensuring that Ecological Integrity continues to be the first priority of the Minister in managing our national parks and ensuring the highest level of protection and management. In 2018, an independent Working Group was formed on ensuring that ecological integrity is applied better across our national parks. Our government released the Working Group’s report in August 2019, and we are committed to implementing all of its recommendations. Dr. Peter Robinson, previously the CEO of Mountain Equipment Co-op and the David Suzuki Foundation, led the independent working group and will continue to advise Parks Canada on the ongoing implementation of the commitments.
     
    A re-elected Liberal government will continue to invest in marine science, increase conservation of lands and waters, and implement a new $3 billion fund for nature-based solutions to climate that will account for both climate and biodiversity objectives. We have already launched the Whales Initiative and the Oceans Protection Plan, announced new standards for Marine Protected Areas, and reinvested in science capacity after a decade of cuts made by the Harper Conservatives. We’re addressing the issue of ghost gear through research and removal programs, and we’ve strengthen protection measures including increasing prey availability, mitigating noise from marine shipping for commercial and general vessel traffic, introducing interim sanctuary zones to maximize protections in key foraging areas, and enhancing regulatory control of pollutants in the water. We are committed to the protection and recovery of the Southern Resident killer whale, the North Atlantic Right Whale and the St. Lawrence Estuary Beluga.

    NEW DEMOCRATIC PARTY RESPONSE

    Yes. New Democrats believe that federally-protected lands and waters must be backed by funding and enforcement in order to ensure that they are managed to the highest standards of ecological integrity, and that’s what we will deliver in government. In keeping with our commitment to reconciliation, these conservation goals will be advanced in full partnership with Indigenous peoples and with respect for Indigenous sovereignty. We will grow the Indigenous Guardians Program, invest in Indigenous-led science, and support the creation of Indigenous-managed protected areas – and to make sure that species recovery efforts uphold Indigenous rights and embrace traditional knowledge to increase biodiversity.

    PEOPLE'S PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    No Response

  7. Will you protect Canadians from pesticides, pollution and toxics in everyday products by modernizing the Canadian Environmental Protection Act and strengthening federal regulation of pesticides?
    Click on the party logos to see each of their responses.

    BLOC QUÉBÉCOIS RESPONSE

    Ban toxic substances of very high concern such as BPA? Yes. We advocate the complete and immediate ban of bisphenol A in any product that may come into contact with food, such as plastic containers or tin cans.

    Require industry to substitute toxic substances with safer alternatives?

    We are completely in favour of the principle but we do not have the scientific and technological knowledge required to determine whether substitutes exist for all toxic products. We would welcome the opportunity to work with you and other stakeholders on this matter.

    Protect vulnerable and marginalized groups from toxic substances and pollution and recognize that all people in Canada have a right to a healthy environment? Yes. In the last session of Parliament, we spoke out in favour of including environmental rights in the Canadian Human Rights Act, which governs federal activities.

    Establish, in partnership with the provinces, enforceable health – and environment -based national air quality standards? No.

    Right now, Québec has the best environmental legislation, in terms of both standards and evaluation or consultation. A “national” consensus with the federal government and the provinces to develop uniform “national” standards would oblige Québec to dial back in order to align with Ottawa and the lax provinces.

    We prefer an approach where all projects and activities are subject to all applicable laws. In this case, as the project will have to comply with all the laws, the strictest standard will apply. The example of the Port of Québec speaks eloquently to this. A company there freely pollutes the neighbourhoods in the Basse-ville de Québec with full impunity because its federal status supposedly exempts it from Québec’s environmental protection act. The case is under appeal.

    Rather than advocate harmonization, which would move some provinces forward but set Québec back, we would re-table the bill prohibiting various ministers from authorizing projects and activities that do not meet provincial laws and municipal bylaws related to the environment and land use.

    Require action to reduce risks from toxic substances in a shorter time frame? Yes.

    Improve consumer product labelling to require the disclosure of all chemical ingredients, especially toxics, for personal care products, cleaning products and furniture? Yes.

    Modernize the assessment requirements of new substances and organisms, including GMOs, to ensure transparency and public consultation? Yes.

    For more than 15 years we have been demanding mandatory GMO labelling, admittedly without success. On this, we are in step with over 80% of Québecers, who supported this obligation in a survey after transgenic salmon turned up in our grocery stores.

    The Bloc Québécois will take this matter up again and table a bill in the next session.

    It seems to us to be the right time for a move, with the recent conclusion of the CETA, the free-trade agreement with Europe. Because European countries have stricter legislation, Canadian exporters had to develop separate production and distribution facilities for non-transgenic agricultural products in order to access the European markets.

    This means one of the main technological objections held up to us to avoid mandatory labelling is gone. We hope to get our bill passed this time, and we hope we can count on your support.

    Pesticides: Yes.

    Questions in the House, letter to the Minister: the Bloc Québécois pressured the government to prohibit pesticides that kill bees for the entire last session.

    We are in favour of an immediate ban, with a transition deadline for farmers, to allow them to use up their seeds, find a new supplier and change their farming techniques.

    For this transition to take place rapidly, they will have to count on guidance from the government. As Agriculture Canada does not have a wide enough presence on the ground to individually coach farmers, we expect Ottawa to offer financial support, so the burden does not lie entirely on the farmers, and scientific support, to find the most viable solutions for soil recovery. Above all, Ottawa must take note of the serious scientific lesson the bee crisis has taught us. Right now, a substance must be proven dangerous for the government to stop authorizing it. But when it comes to toxic pollution, this evidence can only be provided in epidemiological studies conducted after irreparable wide-scale damage has occurred. In short, it is the federal government’s failure to apply the precautionary principle that is entirely to blame for this crisis. This cannot be allowed to continue!

    A reinvigorated Bloc Québécois, as a recognized party and member of Parliamentary committees, will demand an in-depth study to introduce the precautionary principle into every step of the federal approval process.

    CONSERVATIVE PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    No.
    Please see Conservative Party of Canada response at the end for more details.

    GREEN PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes. Environmental justice means social justice. Pollution and toxic chemicals cost our health, our economy and our environment. Each year, the negative health impacts as a result of Canadians’ exposure to toxic substances is estimated to cost our healthcare system tens of billions of dollars. The health effects of pesticides and other toxic chemicals include cancer, asthma, learning disabilities, and other chronic diseases. Greens are committed to modernizing the Canadian Environmental Protection Act and strengthening the federal regulation of pesticides and other chemicals to combat these negative effects.

    LIBERAL PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes.  All Canadians deserve a healthy environment and safe communities. Over the last four years, our government took strong measures to protect Canadians from toxic chemicals and pollution.
     
    Our government took quick action in fully banning asbestos in Canada to protect the health of Canadians. We also banned microbeads from toiletries. We moved to ban harmful single-use plastics as early as 2021. We took action to improve air quality and cut pollution from industrial sources, such as VOCs from oil refineries. And we improved the transparency about air quality through a new State of the Air Report with provinces.
     
    In the interim, we also worked to:
     
    • Define and better consider vulnerable populations in the assessment and management of chemicals;
    • Improve biomonitoring and environmental data so we can better consider risks and track “hot spots”;
    • Adopt internationally accepted test methods for endocrine disruption, and to consider endocrine disruption when we assess the risks of chemicals;
    • Incorporate life-cycle analysis in risk management decision making.
     
    We have committed to engaging with a range of stakeholders on chemical management to advance these and other commitments to better protect Canadians from toxics and harmful chemicals.
     
    A re-elected Liberal government will move forward with new standards and targets for businesses that manufacture plastic products or sell items with plastic packaging, to make sure they take full responsibility for collecting and recycling their plastic waste.
     
    And to better protect people from toxins, and other pollution, we will move forward to further strengthen Canada’s Environmental Protection Act.

    NEW DEMOCRATIC PARTY RESPONSE

    Yes. New Democrats believe in science-based decision making that relies on rigorous, independent review of potentially harmful substances. We will better protect Canadians from toxic substances in everyday products like cosmetics through a strengthened and modernized Canadian Environmental Protection Act. We also support a comprehensive review of the Pest Control Products Act, and will work with the agriculture sector and invest in public research to develop and promote techniques to reduce fertilizer and pesticide load and run-off. A New Democrat government will ensure that our farmers are supported in the transition to safer alternatives and new technologies, such as seed treatments, and work in partnership with communities and the agriculture sector on a strategy to monitor and protect the health of pollinators.

    PEOPLE'S PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    No Response

  8. Given our plastic pollution and waste crisis, will you work with other levels of government to implement a national strategy that includes a ban on the production, sale and distribution of the most problematic and unnecessary single-use plastics, and that works to create a circular economy focused on reuse?
    Click on the party logos to see each of their responses.

    BLOC QUÉBÉCOIS RESPONSE

    Banning problematic and unnecessary single-use plastics that are regularly found in the environment, contain harmful chemicals, have existing alternatives and are non- or poorly-recyclable plastic, including but not limited to, straws, bags, cups, bottles, cutlery, stirrers, cotton buds, take-out containers, polystyrene, expanded polystyrene, multilayered plastic packaging, black and colored plastic and PVC? Yes.

    Following the example of microbeads, take priority steps to declare microfibers and single-use plastics as toxic under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA)? Yes.

    Harmonizing provincial recycling targets to ensure 100 per cent of single-use plastics currently in circulation are captured and recycled by 2025? No.

    As we said earlier, we feel that the harmonization of standards and the adoption of uniform “national” standards will amount to restraining provinces that want to do more and better by giving the bad players veto power.

    Require enforceable Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) legislation that makes companies financially and operationally responsible for the entire lifecycle their products and packaging by ensuring that environmental impacts and social impacts are considered including product-related pollution and costs to communities for clean-up?

    We are absolutely in favour of the principle and prepared to assess its feasibility.

    Introduce regulation that incentivizes more sustainable product delivery solutions? Yes.

    CONSERVATIVE PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    No.
    Please see Conservative Party of Canada response at the end for more details.

    GREEN PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes. Greens are committed to working with other levels of government on a national strategy to create a circular economy, including strong waste management regulations that ban single use plastics, such as straws, dishes, cutlery, foam take out containers, drink stirrers, and bags. Similarly, Greens are committed to passing Right to Repair legislation in order to combat throw-away culture and planned obsolescence while also creating jobs.

    LIBERAL PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes. Canadians want to see less plastic ending up in the trash, in the environment, or on our shorelines and in the ocean. In response, our government is taking action to ban harmful single-use plastics as early as 2021 (including plastic bags, straws, cutlery, plates, and stir sticks) where supported by scientific evidence. We have already fully banned microbeads in toiletries - which are harmful to our nature and wildlife that depends on it.
     
    We will also work with provinces and territories to introduce standards and targets for companies that manufacture plastic products or sell items with plastic packaging, so they take responsibility for their plastic waste.
     
    These measures will support the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment’s development of an action plan to implement the Canada-wide Strategy on Zero Plastic Waste.
     
    We also launched the Ocean Plastics Charter, an international partnership to ensure plastics are designed for reuse and recycling, as a centrepiece of our G7 presidency in 2018. The Prime Minister also announced $100M to help developing countries prevent plastic waste from entering the oceans, address plastic waste on shorelines, and better manage existing plastic resources. This includes $65 million through the World Bank, $6 million to strengthen innovative private-public partnerships through the World Economic Forum’s Global Plastic Action Partnership, and $20 million to help implement the G7 Innovation Challenge to Address Marine Plastic Litter.
     
    A re-elected Liberal government will also move forward with a new Canada Water Agency, that will work with provinces and territories, Indigenous communities, local authorities, scientists, and others to find the best ways to keep our water safe, clean, and well-managed.

    NEW DEMOCRATIC PARTY RESPONSE

    Yes. To reduce waste in our landfills and communities, a New Democrat government will ban single-use plastics across Canada, and develop strong, enforceable extended producer responsibility legislation that holds companies responsible for the entire lifecycle of their plastics products and packaging. We will tackle our existing plastic pollution by working with provinces and territories, municipalities, and Indigenous governments to capture and recycle the single-use plastics already in our communities. A New Democrat government will also make funding available through the Canadian Climate Bank to help municipalities adapt and improve their waste management and recycling programs. Additionally, we’ll invest in the development and deployment of technologies to help manufacturers transition away from harmful plastics – and work towards a circular economy and a zero-waste future.

    PEOPLE'S PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    No Response

  9. Will you create a Federal Environmental Bill of Rights that formally recognizes the legal right to a healthy environment?
    Click on the party logos to see each of their responses.

    BLOC QUÉBÉCOIS RESPONSE

    During the last session of Parliament, we came out in favour of including environmental rights in the Canada Human Rights Act, which governs federal activities.

    CONSERVATIVE PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    No.
    Please see Conservative Party of Canada response at the end for more details.

    GREEN PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes. Our environment is the source of our health and wealth. Yet, too often we have treated it like a business in liquidation. A long history of inadequate environmental protections and wasteful management practices has left us at risk of leaving our children a debilitated and degraded environment unable to provide the life-sustaining ecosystem services that we have taken for granted. Greens are committed to the creation of a Federal Environmental Bill of Rights that will include greater transparency in decision-making, public participation rights, and access to judicial review mechanisms.

    LIBERAL PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    All Canadians deserve a healthy environment and safe communities – the less we do now, the bigger the debt we leave for our kids and our grandkids.
     
    That’s why we’ve taken serious action to cut pollution, adapt to climate change, conserve our nature, and protect our environment from toxic chemicals and pollution.
     
    There are a number of ways to further recognize the right to a healthy environment in legislation and strengthen the tools we use to manage chemicals and prevent pollution. We’ve already used the Canadian Environmental Protection Act to ban asbestos and microbeads.
     
    To better protect people from toxins, and other pollution, a re-elected Liberal government will move forward to further strengthen Canada’s Environmental Protection Act. A legal right to a healthy environment will be carefully considered as part this commitment.
     
    Through this law reform process, our government will improve transparency, access to information, independence, and public participation in environmental decision-making. Our government will also work to close regulatory gaps in the application of federal and provincial environmental laws, particularly as they apply to Indigenous peoples.
     
    In addition, our government will promote environmental justice through the strengthened protection of vulnerable populations impacted by environmental concerns. We will continue to ensure that federal environmental laws are implemented and enforced, and that the environment and the economy go hand in hand. In managing the use of pesticides and toxic substances, we will work to protect the air, water, and land, as well as human health, for the benefit of both present and future generations.

    NEW DEMOCRATIC PARTY RESPONSE

    Yes. For almost a decade, New Democrats have led the fight for the creation of a federal environmental bill of rights to enshrine in law the right to a healthy environment, tabling model legislation four times since 2011. Our federal Environmental Bill of Rights will ensure that all communities can enjoy a guarantee to clean water, land, and air, and will set the stage for the adoption of serious measures to curb climate pollution. It gives Canadians the right to access environmental information, participate in decisions impacting their environment and hold the government accountable for protecting the environment.

    PEOPLE'S PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    No Response

  10. Will you uphold the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, and the protection of Indigenous and treaty rights?
    Click on the party logos to see each of their responses.

    BLOC QUÉBÉCOIS RESPONSE

    Yes. The Bloc Québécois was the first party in the House of Commons to argue in favour of ratifying the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Besides going to the UN Assembly in New York to support the Declaration, we held a meeting with representatives of the diplomatic corps in Ottawa, in the presence of Indigenous leaders, to encourage countries to sign the declaration and facilitate its implementation. We will continue to work toward its full application.

    We will also press the government to go further by creating a commission in charge of updating the recommendations of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (Erasmus-Dussault) and implementing its main recommendations, beginning in this term.

    CONSERVATIVE PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    No.
    Please see Conservative Party of Canada response at the end for more details.

    GREEN PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes. Underpinning all Green decisions is the fundamental challenge of achieving reconciliation with Indigenous peoples. Indigenous peoples are the original inhabitants of the land now called Canada. The Americas prior to contact with Europeans were full of complex and thriving societies. Through violent expropriation, displacement, and forced assimilation - both before and after Confederation - these original inhabitants and their descendants have largely been cut off from their lands, customs, and governance structures. The prejudicial attitudes and practices of settler governments ever since is why today, Indigenous peoples are overrepresented in the child welfare system, in homeless shelters, and in prisons. Neglected to the fringes of society, they experience higher rates of poverty, violence, and poor health outcomes compared to non-Indigenous Canadians. Greens recognize the ongoing leadership, resistance, and resilience of Indigenous peoples in the face of systemic oppression and intergenerational trauma, and are committed to upholding the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, and the protection of Indigenous and treaty rights.

    LIBERAL PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes. We committed to the implementation of the Declaration as part of our government's commitment to the TRC Calls to Action.
     
    In May 2016, the Minister of Indigenous and Northern Affairs announced during a speech at the United Nations, that Canada is now a full supporter, without qualification, of the Declaration.
     
    We followed through on key legislative initiatives that support the implementation of the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, including;
     
    • Indigenous languages
    • child and family services,
    • and a renewed environmental assessment processes.
     
    We also supported Bill C-262 as an important step to ensuring that the Declaration was implemented in Canada, and were deeply disappointed that Andrew Scheer used his Conservative Senators to block the passage of this important bill. If re-elected, our Government will reintroduce government legislation to implement the Declaration early in the next mandate.

    NEW DEMOCRATIC PARTY RESPONSE

    Yes. Reconciliation with Indigenous peoples and the recognition of inherent rights, title and treaty rights must be at the heart of our approach to addressing climate change. New Democrats recognize the unique knowledge and vital governance role that Indigenous people have, and continue to play, as the original peoples and stewards of their territories. We acknowledge that Indigenous communities are on the front lines dealing with the impacts of climate change every day, and that Indigenous peoples are best placed to protect cultural and biological diversity through control over their territory. That’s why First Nations, Inuit, and Métis peoples must be made full and equal partners in Canada’s efforts to confront the climate crisis. We are committed to the full implementation of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and the calls to action of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. This includes the right to self-determination and the need for free, prior and informed consent on any decisions affecting traditional territory and rights. In addition to working nation-to-nation with affected communities, New Democrats will ensure that First Nations, Inuit and the Métis leadership have a seat at high-level decision-making tables to help direct climate change efforts in Canada. Canada must immediately address the longstanding crisis that Indigenous communities face accessing basic services like clean water, safe housing, and education. In addition, First Nations, Inuit, and Métis peoples need to be partners in the development of job creation, employment training, and infrastructure investments that flow from federal efforts to address climate change, ensuring that they are implemented in ways that fit the needs and priorities of local communities. A New Democrat government will also provide support to protect Indigenous communities in the face of climate change emergencies like wildfires and floods.

    PEOPLE'S PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    No Response

1-10Conservative Party of Canada Response to all 10 Questions

Canadian Conservatives have a proud legacy of managing Canada’s natural environment that spans the full history of our country.  A Conservative Government led by Andrew Scheer will build on this legacy, which is why we recently proposed the most comprehensive environment platform ever put forward by an Opposition party in Canada.  It focuses on three main themes: green technology, not taxes; a cleaner, greener natural environment, and taking the climate change fight global.

We have chosen to focus on technology over taxes because, given the current trajectory of major emitters like China, the only way we can keep warming below 2oC – let alone 1.5oC – is to achieve major leaps in emissions-reducing technology. Other parties may be content to simply raise taxes and hope for the best, but we have developed a comprehensive strategy to enhance green innovation in Canada for all key sectors, including transportation, buildings, industry and the oil and gas sector.  We believe that this approach is not only the best way for Canada to contribute to reducing global emissions, it is also the best way to ensure that Canada can benefit from a cleaner global economy in the future.

This is also why we have committed to taking the climate change fight global.  If climate action in Canada decreases our competitiveness and results in a displacement of economic activity to jurisdictions with lower standards, then we might actually be increasing global emissions while hurting ourselves.  This phenomenon – known as carbon leakage – is a real problem that has been a barrier to progress around the world.  This is why we have proposed a number of initiatives that help ensure Canadian companies can maintain and/or improve their competitiveness while lowering global emissions, and that open up markets for Canadian innovators to contribute to lowering global emissions.

Although climate change is the most pressing environmental issue of our time, it is not the only one.  That is why our plan for a cleaner, greener natural environment includes initiatives that cover important areas such as wetlands and waterways, protected areas, invasive species, air pollution, wildlife management and plastics waste.  Our plan includes strong and achievable commitments that will make a real difference to improving Canada’s natural environment.  For more details on our commitments we would urge you to go to arealplan.ca.